Friday, March 11, 2011

"Preloaded Green Dam" What does the story behind

According to "Die Zeit" disclosure caused a lot of controversial "green dam" the provisions of mandatory installation of software, but seems to have been introduced in the process of random: "Green bar software is already in Internet cafes, schools begin the installation, and smooth the way; Software Services Division of the course would like to see the software installed the better the Green Dam ", the software services division to the proposed to require all new factory are mandatory pre-installed in the PC software. When the documents to the Minister of Industry and signature, "Li Yi on this approach had the question: 'do this feasible?' To this, the software services division to 'This is the international practice' to report. This statement to dispel the Li Yizhong doubt. "

This report is entitled "Green Dam pre-installed software was misleading notice issued whole story." Understandably, many of the provisions of the relevant departments put their starting points are good. By "international practice", or misled by some other reasons, caused some unexpected reaction, because, as mentioned in the report, "international practice" for this reason within the Ministry of Industry has in being recognized, after all, many people are not professional people. There are similar examples to this, relevant organizations, private enterprises in Jiangsu Province "rich second generation" into the Party School of the training. Delves Not long ago, there are private enterprises in Shaoxing, in the presence of the proposed party to monitor the financial operations and other key service providers.

All these fundamental reason is that managers of some government departments, although there are good intentions to help the development of enterprises, but some basic market economy principles, or common sense, is still unknown.

Only from the perspective of equal rights and responsibilities, the government should be responsible for their own decisions to make; you require the enterprises to pre-installed green bar, then the resulting maintenance costs, security risks, compatibility issues, you are bound to be a shoulder pick; If private enterprise which has been stationed in the after party is still in arrears, bankruptcy, that presence of the party to fulfill any obligation, to send them to the local authorities have to bear any responsibility? Government's strengths is the provision of social functioning public service, not operational management of enterprises.

Government intervention in business operations specific to another convenient place, even in the implementation of rhythm dislocation. Enterprises running rhythm and pace of the executive branch of the work, each have their own rules. "Die Zeit" the survey noted that the mandatory pre-installed, after notification of the Green Dam, 19 international business organizations jointly sent a letter to the Ministry of Industry, pointed out that the practice of rash between. Li Yizhong Minister knew what "hit the ceiling, severely criticized the Software Services Division."

Administrative accountability, the executive is in the proper meaning, but in the enterprise side, the pursuit of the results. 19 Ministry of Industry and business organizations on the letter is not for public response, resulting in 22 industry groups was more extensive, higher-level expression of views, leading to delay pre-installed software, the Green Dam. At this point some companies began to pre-installed, some companies are still waiting to see; business administration paced rhythm and dislocation, resulting in mass production, communication costs dissipation.

Of course, the implementation of these measures were all that before the introduction of these measures, companies have been investigated for the audience, were received considerable support. However, the decision-makers apparently ignored a reality: the competent authorities on specific matters to businesses seeking "yes" or "no" answer, the effect is equivalent to an election; In no other choice, the answer can only reflect the business their attitude, it may not truly reflect their needs. In the economic sphere, the government's basic principle is that "negative intervention", you do not, I do not give. Rather than asking you to do this today, tomorrow, to ask you to do that, but ignored the true voice of business.

Monday, October 18, 2010

Out errors to make your writing more efficient CSS

According to some CSS experience in writing, how to improve rendering efficiency and consumption of resources by occupation, we come to look at CSS rendering of the efficiency of writing efficient CSS.

1, hexadecimal color value of the median and the case

Write hex color value you may use lower-case letters or omitted into 3-digit, no wording on it to find concrete data to prove the efficiency of the browser's rendering is affected, but the hexadecimal value of the default standard color is capitalized and 6-digit mark. In unknown circumstances, do not want to risk the lower the efficiency of rendering.

* Do not agree-color: # f3a;

* Suggested-color: # FF33AA;

2, display the differences with the visibility

They are used to set or retrieve the display object. display hidden object does not retain the physical space, visibility reserved for the hidden objects occupy the physical space. When the browser rendering of physical space to be occupied, there will be consumption of resources.

* Do not agree-visibility: hidden;

* To use the-display: none;

3, border: none; and border: 0; the difference between

And display a similar relationship with the visibility were not retained and reserved space. More of a border: 0; despite the border to hide out, but it will for you to retain the right to use border-color/border-style.

* Do not agree-border: 0;

* To use the-border: none;

4, should not be too small background image tile

A background image 1px wide and high, although the file size is very small, rendering high-500px wide plate need to repeat the tile 2500. Improve the efficiency of the background image rendering with the image size and volume, and the maximum image file size for about 70KB.

* Do not agree - Wide high 8px below the background image tile

* The proposed use - medium size and measure the background image size

5, IE filter

IE filter in addition to consumption of resources has more compatibility issues. Among them, to make a transparent PNG filter, GIF or JPG can be used through non-transparent approach seems to avoid the use of this filter. Proposed that only a transparent GIF in IE6 applications, because IE7 has support PNG transparency above.

* Do not agree, abuse of consumption of resources as IE filters also have compatibility problems.

* To use, the best choice to use other methods to avoid filters.

6, * (margin: 0; padding: 0;) to avoid differences in browser style

* Is wildcard for all tags are initialized again, the browser's rendering consumes certain resources. Some of the label in the different browsers is almost no difference, or some have been deprecated tag (because you do not use it), they do not need to re-initialize the wildcard again this can save a little resources.

* Do not support the use of wildcard asterisk

* Do not agree, divspanbuttonbtable tag into a wildcard such as internal and external control of fill styles

* To use, to selectively control the use of wildcards within and outside the fill style.

7, do not add additional labels to describe the class or id

If you have a selector based on id as the key selector, do not add the extra tag name up. Because the ID is the only, do not exist for a reason not reduce the efficiency of matching.

* Do not agree-button # backButton ()

* Does not support -. menu-left # newMenuIcon ()

* Suggested - # backButton ()

* Suggested - # newMenuIcon ()

8, try to choose the most specific class to hold the selector

Reduce the efficiency of the system one of the largest class in the label because we used too much of the selector. By adding a class to the elements, we can be subdivided into categories of class type, so no need to waste time on a label too many choices to meet the match.

* Do not agree-treeitem [mailfolder = "true"]> treerow> treecell ()

* Suggested -. treecell-mailfolder ()

9, to avoid children and grandchildren selector

Children CSS selector is the most consumed resources selector. He is very resource intensive, especially in the tag selector to use when the class or general class. In many cases, we really want is the child selector. Unless clearly stated, is strictly prohibited in UICSS descendants selector of.

* Do not agree-treeheadtreerowtreecell ()

* Better, but still not work (see next)-treehead> treerow> treecell ()

10, the label should not contain sub-class selectors

Do not use the sub-tag class selectors. Otherwise, each element in the emergence of an additional increase would match the time. (Especially when the selector seems to mostly be matched case)

* Do not agree-treehead> treerow> treecell ()

* Suggested -. treecell-header ()

11, note the use of all child selector

Careful use of child selector. If you can not think of a way to use him, then do not use. Especially in the RDF tree and the menu will often use child selectors, like this.

* Do not agree-treeitem [IsImapServer = "true"]> treerow>. Tree-folderpane-icon ()

Remember RDF properties can be copied in the template! Advantage of this, we can copy those who want to change the child based on the attributes of RDF XUL element attributes.

* Suggested -. tree-folderpane-icon [IsImapServer = "true"] ()

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Tuesday, October 12, 2010

Capital tangle 3G

Operators like A-share listed, you must first get the 3G license; and want to get a license, must be restructured.

The past six months, the domestic stock market bullish Donghonghong, stock has doubled, attracted Bank of China, ICBC, China Life Insurance and other state-owned carrier Air China and the domestic capital market have a beachhead. Zhe Fan circumstances for other state-owned enterprises really jealous brothers, allegedly waiting for a large state-owned enterprises have been listed by long lines, and these include the Big Three domestic telecommunications industry, China Mobile, China Netcom and China Telecom. Three operators are explicitly or implicitly present position on the domestic capital market from the plot, while the domestic capital markets have long been carriers of this "Chinese people make money, to the foreign dividend" approach do not see the past, urged They hastened to allow domestic investors to taste the taste of cents. For organizations who hand hot money for the domestic market means that operators more than a good choice. The three companies have many years of overseas listing of qualifications, the Commission on the relative confidence in corporate governance, can relax their scrutiny. Operators along the domestic market seems to be the public voice of God thing.

However, operators to the domestic market is not so simple. Since the three operators have been listed overseas, they can be CDR (China depository receipts, the Chinese mainland companies listed in Mainland China, a way of raising funds, investors purchase the CDR equivalent to the overseas company to buy stock) or the A Share Issue In the domestic market in two ways. For now, CDR has no precedent in the country, dealing with difficult technology, domestic investors are also difficult to accept in a short time, operators are more inclined to the latter. According to current regulations in Mainland China, such as China Mobile registered overseas red-chip companies, not directly to mainland China A share market, China Mobile can be set up in Mainland China, a new company, acquired the assets related to the present, to avoid the policy obstacles. But either way, the domestic market will involve the interests of foreign investors, many of the technical details of the deal will be delayed three major domestic carriers time to market.

No matter what form operators listed, one thing is certain, the three operators does not do it already, one shot will definitely be generous. The three operators are all signs 3G outgoing funds to do to prepare, were said to reach 100 billion yuan will be financed as much. Since the financing is to 3G, will have to take into account the issue of 3G license issuance time, if no 3G licenses were available, and want to pass that one and I am afraid of China Securities Regulatory Commission is unlikely. More recent travels Sheng is China Mobile TD-SCDMA will be built in the license, but the maturity of TD is still under discussion, when it can reach the whole business depends on the efforts of the parties. In comparison, China Netcom and China Telecom's 3G open the door to the manner in which it is currently unknown.

As the 3G hundreds of billion yuan of investment required is huge, currently in the mobile communications market, in terms of financial strength or from the experience point of view, China Mobile have been recognized as the strongest. Market concerned is to enable China Telecom and China Netcom are each independent build a complete 3G network will be powerless. If so, the two companies will lag behind 3G running with China Mobile. Ministry of Information Industry will not sit idly by this fact, the restructuring of the telecommunications industry to become a very urgent matter. JP Morgan has recently estimated the restructuring of the telecommunications industry in Mainland China the fastest place in the first quarter of this year, by way of China Unicom to be split from China Telecom and China Netcom are digested. The version of the restructuring program are many in the industry legend. And recent media reports, since January 1, 2007, China Netcom Group (Hong Kong) Limited's Guangdong and Shanghai have been out of the assets of listed companies, which will help China Netcom was launched this year, financing and 3G mobile services to do well prepared. It appears that once again restructuring the telecommunications industry is already the atmosphere of the wind is really full of building.

No matter what way between operators reorganization can be expected that the former is bound to get a license to restructure, or difficult to obtain a license (mainly Netcom and Telecom), while the operator can only obtain a license to A shares after the listing, otherwise Listing name is not correct then no justification. However, the restructuring of several major carriers is not a simple addition and subtraction, carrier division of the assets, the coordination of the interests of shareholders, as well as many technical details of the deal have a lot of time. Therefore, to see in the domestic capital market of China Mobile, China Telecom, China Netcom three pillars of the situation, we need a little more patience.

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Friday, October 8, 2010

Encourage you Dealers

In modern marketing, as the carrier's network, more and more large businesses, particularly businesses that rely heavily on civilian goods. Can the normal operation of the network, there is a very key factor, is a connecting network of dealers, they get ideas, interests, consistent with the manufacturers. This is a key determinant in whether the product.

In practice, the general to the dealer incentive is divided into four types:

One time award

Time to reward the enterprise products peak seasons for the balance of interests to the interests of dealers continued pursuit by the formation of a way, it normally month, quarter, year or for specific target markets and set the award period, the time button, and function of reward with up and use; special time to be in the market for a reasonable time and financial resources, the use of distributors can be used alone. Time to award the general continue to encourage sub-routine with the target of a temporary incentive. To grasp the target period of temporary incentives, especially for second issue of business incentives, usually in less than two months is appropriate, too long and could easily lead to psychological inertia, up the Nabuxialai.

Second, functional awards

1. Number of varieties of Award:

Beginning in the design of a variety of incentives, we must consider market conditions and the stage action goals, clear the pathway to protect what form, what kind of sales position, what level of dealer interest and at all levels of space, and long-term strategy to consistent. Every business has its own special market designed to meet the various stages of the marketing strategy, for example, market demand for early-, medium-attack a brand, variety, and strengthen the share of the profits later centrism, is bound to different stages of number and variety of business plans to do the adjustment. Manufacturers of various products designed for different purposes, so we need to aim at different stages, the clever use of continuous and batch number of awards and special varieties of operating incentives to businesses and manufacturers in all stages of the market, market share reached consistency with the profits, but also for changes in the market.

2. Shop City display Award:

In the product market stage, to assess the market capacity, network capacity and management capacity, coordination dealer to take the initiative and quickly delivered the goods terminal. Meanwhile the factory should be given according to the situation of human, the capacity of appropriate subsidies, incentives and dealer Distribution Issues special display in the right position the product incentives.

3. Network Maintenance Award:

To avoid stranded goods dealers and the sales volume based on the work of lag caused atrophy, in addition to send tracking measures, but also can stimulate the form of dealer incentives, the effective maintenance of a suitable product, there is scope to adapt to the network.

4. Price credibility Award:

Many products are now selling goods down there, arbitrary prices, etc., resulting in the loss of the dealer eventually profit margins, so in addition to playing goods code, binding time, reasonable prices and tight market inspectors design, the design should be in the price the price set when the credibility of awards, as the regulation of dealers. The award system should consider the price difference based, regional transportation, manpower, and sales and other factors.

5. Reasonable stock awards:

Dealer's inventory must be adapted to local market capacity, consider the shipping cycle, the goods turnover, and accident safety reserves and maintain a suitable quantity and variety. In addition, the reasonable regulation of dealer inventory also plays funds, energy and the role for our use.

6. Cash Award:

Improve corporate cash flow rate, the closer of the deal more to offer payments to customers; the other hand, more than the critical point of the customer, pay interest on penalties.

7. Collaboration Award:

Policy implementation for the business, with extensive promotion, the establishment of collaboration and information feedback Award, strengthen vendor relations is an effective means to dilute the interest.

Third, fuzzy reward

The main reward is greater in some sales of civilian consumer goods industry, to prevent dealers know the reserve price discounts, price discounts for non-legitimate, low-price competition, disturb the market price of space and the implementation of a reward. The advantage is that the dealer can be effectively controlled dumping; drawback is that distributors of the award is not clear, the purpose of weakening and operational. In this way the production companies making use of more size.

Fourth, cultural awards

Looking to detect time-varying astronomical, judging from human to into the world, the source of the term culture, itself shows that there are deeper psychological needs of mankind.

Always social people, in addition to the dealers the incentive motivation, but also should pay attention to the culture of the dealer incentives. Small as a card, a Jin Bian, encourage their self-esteem, autonomy, can meet the psychological needs of its more profound, but also strengthen the long-term interests of both sides of non-cooperation. In particular, today, their self-esteem, credit, character, values and aesthetics can become a cultural incentive points. Away from commercial interests, weaken the main object, in the interests of consistency, the production culture, the Consistency of personality, this should be the ultimate right of all incentives. Now businesses on short-term, shallow-level operation of great concern, but the deep resonance of long-term relationship is more neglected to say that this is a great pity.

5, rewards and served the way

Awards are generally in cash, donated goods or materials with composition, big dealer button for a longer period of sustained more interested, and Distribution Issues a smaller number of batches prefer the direct back button, they are saying mantra "rather to one now, and not 10 due to the "very able to show their state of mind. The shape of the dealer cash incentives, and sometimes directly affects the market price control, so the market in product design and channel operation, should not one make in the end, be sure to reserve space and for the price means, as the market adjustment reserve . The stage for the dealer, the best way to take can use promotional products gifts, rather than take the donated cash and goods, so as not to disguise price cuts; another operation time, the line must be short and should be targeted.

No loyalty for the second installment of Commerce, speculative and short-sighted group of companies, squeeze on the second issue of promotion and reward situation, first, to reward timely and accurate service-level marketing distributors, market management and personnel monitoring ; Second, we must skillfully position as the carrier material loaded directly batches, for instance, carriers and tape box directly under the posted prize cards, etc.. Enterprises should use a variety of ways to prevent the loss of reward.

Market approach is not fixed, no fixed-type situation, the key is not to memorize any promotion a dry, but according to their own understanding of the enterprise, understanding the object of the operation, the understanding of the objective environment, control the timing and pace of market operations, control a "degree" of the word, clever use of resources to achieve successful market operation.

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Friday, September 24, 2010

PERA2009: "Made in China" the "engine"

----- PERA PERA launched a new version of Lean R & D platform

October 22, 2009, lean R & D leader, the nation's largest supplier of CAE technology PERA (PERA Global) announced the official launch of Lean R & D platform PERA2009 version. This is completely independent intellectual property rights, living in the world's leading platform for products, not only filled a gap in this area, providing a standard platform for research and development process standards, more Chinese manufacturers to provide independent research and development and innovation a "weapon."

According to reports, PERA2009 lean development methodology is based on the information into a means to lean R & D bus for the co-performance products for enterprises, provide conceptual design to product production from the whole process of research and development collaboration platform. It summarized and refined the system of modern enterprise product development process, the elements, forming a company can comply with the R & D processes and rules, and that process should be adopted by all sectors of development tools, and the whole process should be the accumulation of intellectual assets.

Security World Asia-Pacific president, Mr Cheung said: "PERA2009 deliver on the security world from the Asia-Pacific independent research adhere to business practices, commitment to return to business practice. On the World Asia-Pacific from the methodological point of view, and users to design business plans and software support strategy, and then developed to support the software platform. methodology described here is not the software methodology, but the methodology of the user object. PERA2009 in the development, it does not immediately begin to compile the code, but returned to the user The most primitive needs, business methodology from a user starting to help them develop model innovation, which can enhance the independent innovation capability and core competitiveness play a real role in supporting, we believe that this development is the independent research and development, R & D out The technology is the real core technology. "

Lean R & D platform as the successful implementation of the user, Chengdu Aircraft Design Institute of quarter Xiaoguang said: "An Asia-Pacific provided the world the concept of lean R & D, technology and platform, my team and information technology R & D team is recognized. After nine months of Shi Shi, lean R & D platform, a large-scale, integrated, complex the system Zai I have successfully run, 骞朵笖 exceeds our expectations, the Rang us on Jingyi Yanfapingtai and Yasuyo Yataigongsi Du Chong Man Le confidence . As users, we are willing to join the Asia-Pacific security world, and more users, common to the whole Chinese aviation industry to develop useful technology industry to a higher stage. "

For a long time, computer-aided software is regarded as independent research and development and innovation of Chinese enterprises an important tool that can significantly improve the enterprise's core competitiveness, promote the transformation and upgrading of China's manufacturing industry gradually, from a 'Made in China' to 'Created in China' by leaps and bounds. Therefore, software has become a domestic industry development and support of the Chinese government stressed the important areas. An independent research and development of Lean World Asia-Pacific R & D platform as the major force of China's industrial software industry and has broad prospects for development.

Experts predict lean R & D will help the "Made in China" into "Made in China" the new hope is to promote and build China an innovative country, to improve our software and equipment manufacturing capacity to support the industry to upgrade, especially for the current financial crisis States under several key development sectors, for the transformation and upgrading of Chinese manufacturing enterprises play a real role in supporting. Meanwhile, the practice shows that the Asia-Pacific Security Studies World Lean methodology has been developed a lot of user acceptance, and lean R & D platform PERA2009 also won the trust of customers. Security Pacific will continue to focus on the World Lean R & D in the development and innovation, becoming the global leader in this field who Tongshi 浼佷笟 for China to provide greater creative force.

It is reported that, PERA 2009 is the official product launch platform PERA received 42 million dollars of Baring Private Equity Asia's first major move after. Mr Cheung said the Security World Asia-Pacific will focus on high-end research and development of information technology development and innovation, to become a global leader in this field, but also for Chinese companies to provide more powerful driving force of innovation.


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Thursday, September 16, 2010

Teach you how to make bubble drift

Tools: flash mx 2004


1. Blistered about random _x is shaking, you can set a variable for the variable x coordinate within a certain period of random value, value, let _x trend variables move, move to the variable point, then the variable re-value, _x and then move towards variable. _x always move to the variable.
2. Using attachMovie to copy the bubble, bubbles with unloadMovie achieve unloading.
3. To frame for recycling in order to produce more bubbles.


The first step: New file, length and width for the 300 脳 200, background white, frame rate set to 60, allowing a number of bubbles flowing move a little bit faster.

Step two: paint bubbles, save for the mc, called pao.

Step Three: Add a new mc, named pp_mc, and set the output connection, called pp, to attachmovie call.鍦╩c鐨勫満鏅腑鎷栧叆pao锛屽潗鏍囦互闇?娉℃场鍑虹幇鐨勫ぇ浣撹寖鍥翠负鍑嗭紝鎴戣鐨勬槸x=98,y=10锛宲p_mc闇?瀹炵幇娉℃场鐨勯殢鏈虹Щ鍔紝鎵?互锛岄?瀹歱ao锛屾墦寮?ction闈㈡澘銆?Code:
onClipEvent (load) (
聽 a = random(140)+10;
聽 //褰搈c杞藉叆鏃讹紝棰勮a鍙橀噺銆俛鍙橀噺鏄帶鍒舵场娉¤繍鍔ㄦ柟鍚戠殑锛屽a杩涜10鍒?50涔嬮棿鐨勯殢鏈哄彇鍊?br />)

onClipEvent (enterFrame) (
if (this._x>a) {銆??銆??銆??銆??銆??銆??銆?br />聽 this._x = int(this._x)-1;
聽 this._y -= 1;
聽 this._alpha -= 0.01;
聽 if (this._alpha == 0) {
聽聽聽 this.unloadMovie();
} else if (this._x聽聽 this._x = int(this._x)+1;
聽 this._y -= 1;
聽 this._alpha -= 0.01;
聽 if (this._alpha == 0) {
聽聽聽 this.unloadMovie();銆??//褰撻?鏄庡害涓?鏃讹紝鍗歌浇娉℃场


聽 } else {
聽聽聽 a = random(140)+10;

銆??绗洓姝ワ細鍥炲埌鍦烘櫙锛屽湪绗竴甯т笂鍐欏涓嬩唬鐮?br />

銆??绗簲姝ワ細鍦ㄧ浜屽抚鍐欏涓嬩唬鐮?br />
_root.attachMovie("pp", "pp"+j, j);
//浠庡簱閲屽鍒舵场娉?br />_root["pp"+j]._x = random(140)+10;
_root["pp"+j]._y = 200;
//璁惧畾y鍧愭爣鍊?br />_root["pp"+j]._xscale = random(70)+30;
//30%鍒?00%鐨勯殢鏈簒缂╂斁鍊糭root["pp"+j]._yscale = _root["pp"+j]._xscale;
//30%鍒?00%鐨勯殢鏈簓缂╂斁鍊?br />绗叚姝ワ細绗笁甯т唬鐮佸涓?br />if (j<10) {
聽 //杩欎釜鍒ゆ柇涓簀璧嬫渶澶у?
聽 j = j+1;
) Else (
j = 0;
聽 //褰搄锛?0鏃讹紝j杩斿洖0鍊?br />)
gotoAndPlay (2);

銆??鍦ㄦ渶鍒濆仛杩欎釜娉℃场鏃讹紝鎴戞病鏈変负j璁惧畾鏈?ぇ鍊硷紝璁﹋涓嶆柇绱姞锛屽鑷磗wf鏂囦欢鏋佸崰cpu璧勬簮锛屽叾瀹?0涓场娉″浜庢垜鍋氱殑杩欎釜鍑虹幇棰戠巼灏卞浜嗭紝j鍙互鏍规嵁瀹為檯鎯呭喌璁惧畾銆?br />
銆??濂戒簡锛屼綘涔熷彲浠ュ仛涓场娉′簡锛岃繕鏈変竴鐐瑰氨鏄紝鎴戜负浜嗚娉℃场涓嶈鍑哄緱杩欎箞棰戠箒锛岃绗簩甯у拰绗笁甯т箣闂撮殧浜嗗ソ浜涗釜绌虹櫧甯э紝濡傛灉鎯冲涓?簺锛屾尐杩戜竴鐐瑰氨琛屼簡銆?br />銆??寰?笂鍗囨槸娉℃场锛屽鏋滃線涓嬮鍙互鍋氶洦锛岄洩浠?箞鐨勩?璇曡瘯鐪嬪惂 :p
銆??绗竴娆″啓鏁欑▼锛屾湁璇寸殑涓嶆竻妤氱殑鍦版柟锛岃澶у鎸囧嚭锛屾湁璇寸殑涓嶅鐨勫湴鏂癸紝璇峰ぇ瀹舵寚鐐广? :)


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Thursday, July 29, 2010

Analysis of the Japanese shipbuilding industry

Japan's shipbuilding industry began in the 19th century modern 50's, the rapid development in the First World War. Since 1955, Japan overtook Britain as the world's largest shipbuilding country, has maintained the world's highest level of shipbuilding technology. During World War II and have been subjected to the oil crisis, Japan's shipbuilding industry into a few times though so low, but still nearly half a century has maintained market share leadership.

Japan has a strong shipbuilding capabilities
Shipbuilding industry was one of Japan's major swap, when the shipbuilding industry exports have been the best situation of Japan's exports accounted for 98.6% of the total. In recent years, upgrading the international shipping industry slowdown in the ship, declining demand for new ship construction, ship building and intensifying international competition, the ship's position in Japan's exports declined, exports to Japan accounted for only about 2% of total exports.
Japan's shipbuilding industry constituted by the private sector, is very large, large number of shipyards. The shipyard in Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, Kobe and Nagasaki, the center, mainly in the Kyushu, Shikoku and other regions. Most of the world shipbuilding enterprises to small and medium enterprises. The world's major shipbuilding companies around nearly 30, including Japan's Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Hitachi Shipbuilding, Mitsui Shipbuilding, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan Steel Corporation and Sumitomo Heavy Engineering Co., Ltd. 7 large-scale shipbuilding enterprises, a total of over 20 shipyards. The number of large shipbuilding companies in Japan, while small, shipbuilding capacity, shipbuilding output, output value and number of employees in the industry has always been a major player. In addition to the Japanese steel companies started by other than iron and steel smelting, and the remaining six are gradually developed by the ship building and repairing the integrated enterprise. In 2002, to enhance competitiveness, the Japanese shipbuilding industry would be reorganized into Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Sumitomo Heavy Industries Group and the two nations shipbuilding shipbuilding, IHI Joint Shipbuilding Corporation, Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation, Mitsui Shipbuilding four shipbuilding companies, only the total number of Japanese shipyards 3% of GDP, the shipbuilding capacity and industrial production accounted for 50% of Japanese ships over. In addition to these companies outside Japan also has nearly a thousand marine equipment manufacturer. In addition, there are nearly a thousand small-scale factories in Japan, small engine repair and marine electrical installation services. Japanese Ministry of Land, Maritime Bureau recently released data show that Japanese marine accessory products output increased for 5 consecutive years. Of these, 10 000 horsepower and above large marine diesel engines, 1,000 to 10,000 horsepower medium-sized machines, minicomputers 1,000 horsepower increase exceeded 13%.
Japan has a strong shipbuilding capabilities, product range, from all types of cargo ships, passenger ships, oil tankers to the technical complexity of liquid gas vessels are now available. Japanese shipyards in recent years will be a lot of money into R & D (research and development) projects and new production equipment, the expenditure increased year by year business. Medium-sized shipbuilding companies in Japan make extensive use of CAD, CAM and CIMS technology, and to take precision management, the purpose is to ensure product quality, performance, production schedule and reduce costs. A large number of more modern equipment into production. Therefore, rising productivity, a gradual reduction of production costs, financial situation gradually improved, which makes it competitive in the market to a relatively stronger position.

Policy support and strengthen the R & D
Japan Shipbuilding Industry is one of the main reasons, is the Government under the different periods of the situation, formulate relevant policies and measures, You Xiao Di guidance shipbuilding industry. Which including its: shipbuilding facilities handling excess capacity; business combination, implementing group management, readjust and intensify Chanyetizhi; Tedingchuanbo Zhizao Ye stability Shiyexiekuai buy equipment and land to be processed, and incurred thereby for termination payments, redundancy payments and other obligations for guarantees; specific ocean-going vessels for dismantling under the Provisional Measures Act and the subsidy system for ship dismantling, to vigorously promote the ship-breaking; prohibited under the monopoly law, shipbuilding equipment capable of more than 10,000 gross tonnage of the shipbuilding shipyard production be restricted; promote high value-added ships, ship auxiliary equipment, marine equipment, development of new technology and production technology development, and strengthen research development system; promote international coordination, to strengthen the dialogue between the shipbuilding countries, stable shipbuilding market order; to provide export credits, the promotion of the Japanese shipyard shipbuilding, support the shipbuilding industry; on industrial adjustment assistance.
The second reason is that Japan attaches great importance to marine technology and production technology research and development. Japan's National Institute of marine technology research and civil shipbuilding sector also ship their research to be reckoned with. In order to effectively carry out research and development, by the major countries to develop comprehensive research and development program will focus on all aspects of scientific research forces together, and to strong technical force, the core business of power, from industry, academia, and officials to the development. Sources of research funding there are two main aspects: First, the national research priority by the State authority funding; Second, funded by private foundations, and companies.
The third reason is a good historical opportunity. Substantial depreciation of the yen has made Japanese shipbuilding industry to further enhance the competitiveness of the new ship orders sharply. Japan to take this opportunity, for the shipbuilding industry has laid a good foundation. Recently, the "China Special Needs" has greatly contributed to Japan's shipbuilding and maritime industries of the recovery and development. As the Sino-Japanese, Sino-US trade, the rapid increase in capacity in short supply, even the old vessels have become a popular commodity. Japan's shipbuilding and maritime transport industry for 20 years, there has not been any boom. Japan's shipbuilding industry giants to expand production, increase investment. The new investment in equipment and expand production activities of the Japanese economy to reverse the "hollowing out", adds a number of employment opportunities.

Caught in the vicious cycle of declining competitiveness
For a long time, the Japanese shipbuilding industry has always been first in the world. However, the shipbuilding industry is rapidly changing competitive environment. In the medium and investment surplus, boat price drop, market demand, especially large demand for tankers and other large ships updated diminished, the future upgrading of the international shipping industry slowdown in shipping, shipbuilding industry became fierce international competition. Although the quality of shipbuilding technology and ship building in Japan also has the advantage, but in fact the world really has few of the first.
As China and South Korea and other emerging industrial countries to develop the shipbuilding industry, making the Japanese in the international shipbuilding market share is shrinking. South Korea conducted a large-scale equipment investment, scale of facilities than the Japanese, in terms of product quality are comparable with the Japanese evaluation. In addition, China is actively equipment investment, low cost of shipbuilding menacing production factors, competition in the market in small and medium sized vessels pose a threat to Japan; while increasing the cost of the Japanese shipbuilding, shipbuilding growing problem of human aging and can not take low-cost strategy for orders. Should be noted that at present Japan has long lost its leading position in the absolute.
According to the Japanese Shipbuilding Industry Forecast, 2000 to 2010, 10 years, the world shipping market demand will be reduced to 20 million tons, resulting in increased competition, lower prices, ship-building industry will face even greater pressure. In recent years, seven major shipbuilding or integrated shipbuilding enterprise sector are basically operating deficit. Pressure from foreign governments to protest more strongly. The EU has recently proposed that the Japanese government to shipyard export financing, contrary to WTO principles of fair competition. European agreement on the original limited shipbuilding capacity and the shipbuilding output in Japan, affecting the development of the Japanese shipbuilding industry.
Japan's shipbuilding industry half a century, has maintained the world's leading level. More in the manufacturing sector to overseas transfer and loss in competitiveness environment, scale of production decline, industry has hollowed out the tendency of integration of related industries is also causing difficulties to maintain the shipbuilding industry into a vicious cycle of declining competitiveness.
In addition, the "China Special Needs," the negative impact should not be ignored. Since China bought a lot of raw materials, driving up the prices of many raw materials and freight costs, steel prices have reached the highest in 15 years, copper prices increased by 40%, sea-freight rose 6 times for two years. This will greatly increase the cost of manufacturing in Japan, the recovery of the manufacturing sector cast a shadow. Japanese government development policy positioning as a "logistics hub of Northeast Asia countries", the shipbuilding industry has a high degree of centralization trend. In particular, the recent positive development is the major shipyards in China, coupled with cost advantage, planning in the world shipbuilding market share in 2010 to 15%, the future will have serious competition in Japan.

Measures to maintain international competitiveness
In response to fierce competition, the Japanese shipbuilding industry has taken the following measures to maintain its international competitiveness.
1. The government authorities to establish a support system. The development of relevant laws and measures, from the financial and institutional cooperation. Japanese shipbuilding industry to implement large-scale corporate restructuring, creating large companies such as Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, the industry leader, supplemented by the industry structure of SMEs. Expand the production scale, efforts to regain lost market share.
2. To improve the competitiveness of industry, science and technology. To the industrial Ji Chu, Japanese shipbuilding industry to promote information technology, Caiqu environmental measures to increase the development and application of new technologies, Yanjiu next-generation ships; by senior Jineng information, retaining special production skills and production know-how, research skills of heritage policy and education system, promote the production system upgrade. Focus on technology, research and development of high technology, high value-added ships, reduce the normal vessels carry a lower cost and improve profitability.
3. Improve the industrial base. In the medium to long term will take measures to make the Japanese shipbuilding industry from labor-intensive industries to knowledge-intensive industries. Flexible to adapt to the needs of diverse market and create demand; improving production equipment and working environment, reducing excess personnel and equipment, effort to reduce production costs. Achieved by different ship types and specialized production facilities and marine vessel to accelerate the export of components, and vigorously promote the ship and the normalization and standardization of industrial products.
4. Practice management industry groups to promote the development of SME information. After nearly half a century of development, the Japanese shipbuilding industry to build a highly sophisticated trade management system. Have a Japanese ship Standards Association, Japan Shipbuilding Industry, Japan ships with industry associations, the Japanese ship with authority preparedness Association, more than 30 external organizations, responsible for Japan's shipbuilding industry competitive strategy and ship standard (JMS), involved in responding to and handling of WTO, OECD and other international organizations involved in Japan's shipbuilding disputes and third countries to study South Korea, China shipbuilding industry development trends, to undertake research to improve the environment of the new ship orders. Shipbuilding enterprises to promote collaboration, such as the sharing of ship drawings, material deployment of intelligence, common competition for new ship orders, and more.
5. To actively participate in international interaction. Government of Japan to actively participate in international rule-making, in a bid to grasp the increasingly fierce competition initiative. Active in the strategy called for States to limit the shipbuilding capacity in an attempt to push up shipping prices. Promotion of international shipping environment and technological development; promote aging ship dismantling; strengthen cooperation with China, South Korea and other emerging shipbuilding country's exchanges and cooperation, to maintain technology leadership. In recent years South Korea and China, the rapid development of shipbuilding industry, the Japanese have produced a strong sense of crisis. To increase the collection of information on the intensity of China's Shipbuilding Industry, Kawasaki Heavy Industries and other companies started joint ventures with Chinese shipbuilding deal with low-price strategy in China, for overseas investment.

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